Glossary of Research Terms

A | B | C | DE | F | G | H | I | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | Y | Z | 

A

A/B Testing

A research method in which two versions of a product or marketing campaign are tested to determine which performs better.

Accompanied Shopping

accompanied shopping, also known as a shop-along, is a research method that involves an interviewer accompanying a respondent on a shopping trip. This method allows researchers to gain insight into the consumer's conscious and subconscious needs, expectations, and behaviors at each step of the purchase journey. It also enables researchers to compare the experience the consumer wants or needs with the experience provided by the brand.

Active Data

The researcher actively collects it through methods such as surveys, interviews, or experiments. It is typically collected through direct interaction with participants and can be quantitative or qualitative.

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Ad Concept Testing

Ad concept testing is a method of evaluating initial ad concepts or finished ad executions using either qualitative or quantitative approaches. This testing is meant to assess the relevance, understanding, impact, appeal, and potential longevity of an ad concept. It is sometimes referred to simply as concept testing.

โœ๏ธ View our case study for ad concept testing study of a global FMCG brand.

 

Ad Hoc Research

Ad hoc research is a type of research that is conducted on an as-needed basis, typically in response to a specific problem or question that needs to be addressed. Ad hoc research is often used to gather information for a one-time project or to answer a specific question, and it is typically not part of a larger research study or plan. Ad hoc research can be conducted using various research methods, such as surveys, interviews, focus groups, or experiments, and it is often conducted in order to provide timely information. Ad hoc research can be useful for businesses and organizations that need to gather information quickly in order to make a decision or address a specific issue.

Ad Positioning Statement Testing

Ad positioning statement testing is a method of evaluating the effectiveness of a positioning statement, which is a statement that explains how a product or service is different from its competitors and why it is superior. For example, ad positioning statement testing typically involves conducting research with consumers, such as surveys or focus groups, to assess their reactions to the positioning statement and determine whether it effectively conveys the product's or service's unique value proposition. This testing can help advertisers identify and refine the positioning statement for their product or service to make it more effective at attracting and retaining customers.

Ad Recognition
An aided measure. An ad or commercial is shown to respondents, and they are asked if they have seen or heard that advertising in the past.

Ad Tracking
Monitoring a brands performance with an advertisement to determine the effectiveness of the media targeting, the quality of the advertisements, and ROI.

Ad Recall
The extent to which consumers can remember an advertisement after seeing or hearing it. This is often measured using recognition or recognition and recall tests.

Advertising Effectiveness

Advertising effectiveness refers to the ability of an advertisement to achieve its intended goals and objectives. Advertising effectiveness can be measured in a variety of ways, such as by assessing the ad's ability to increase brand awareness, generate sales, or change consumer attitudes or behaviors. Advertising effectiveness can be evaluated through research methods such as surveys, interviews, focus groups, or experiments. Advertisers and marketers use this information to determine whether an ad campaign is successful and to make adjustments as needed in order to improve its effectiveness.
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Advertising Testing

Also called Advertising Research or Copy Testing. Survey research designed to measure consumer reactions to advertising. Early-stage concept boards to final finished commercials can be tested.

Aided Awareness

A measure of the percentage of consumers who are aware of a particular brand or product when they are prompted or "aided" with the brand or product name. This is in contrast to unaided awareness, which is a measure of awareness without prompting.

Analytical Research

Research that is focused on understanding the relationships between different variables.

Area Sampling
Area sampling is the process of selecting a geographic location (usually based on a map) and dividing it into sub-areas. Sub-areas are sampled at random, or further divided for sub-sampling.

In-Home Usage Test (iHUT) 

A research method in which a test product is provided for participants to use at home. Reactions to the product are measured in an online follow-up survey, telephone survey, mail survey, personal interview, or in focus group session. Also referred to as Home Usage Test (HUT). 

Attitude
A person's overall evaluation or feeling about a particular topic or object.


Attitudinal Statements

Statements that express a person's feelings or beliefs about a particular topic or issue. These statements are often used in research to understand how consumers feel about a brand or product.

 

Awareness

The state of being conscious or aware of something. In market research, awareness refers to consumers' knowledge or recognition of a particular brand or product.

 

B

Bayesian Statistics

A branch of statistics that is based on the principles of Bayesian probability.

Benchmarking

The process of comparing the performance of a company or product to that of competitors or industry standards.

Behavioral Economics

A field of economics that combines psychological, sociological, and neuroscientific theories to understand and predict consumer behavior. Behavioral economics is concerned with the ways in which people make decisions, particularly in situations where those decisions deviate from the assumptions of traditional economics.

Bias

A systematic error or distortion in research data or methods that leads to inaccurate or misleading results. Bias can occur at various stages of the research process, from data collection to analysis and interpretation.

Brand Architecture

The way in which a company organizes and structures its brands, products, and services. Brand architecture is designed to create a coherent and consistent brand experience for consumers, and can include elements such as brand names, logos, and packaging.

Brand Associations

The mental connections or associations that consumers have with a particular brand. Brand associations can be positive, negative, or neutral, and can be based on factors such as the brand's product quality, advertising, or customer service.

Brand Awareness

The extent to which consumers are familiar with a particular brand. This can be measured using recognition or recall tests, or by asking consumers to rate the brand on a scale of familiarity.

 โœ๏ธ Read our case study for brand awareness & performance research of an FMCG brand.

Brand Equity

The value that a brand adds to a product or company. Brand equity is based on consumer perceptions of the brand and can be positive, negative, or neutral. High brand equity can make a product more valuable and help a company charge higher prices. This can be measured using a variety of methods, such as brand loyalty, brand association, and brand awareness tests.

Brand Equity Monitor

A tool or method used to measure the value and strength of a brand. Brand equity monitors can use a variety of measures and methods, such as consumer surveys, market share data, and financial performance metrics.

Brand Loyalty

The tendency of consumers to consistently choose a particular brand over others.

Brand Image

The overall impression or perception that consumers have of a brand. Brand image can be influenced by factors such as the brand's advertising, product quality, and customer service.

Brand Positioning

The way in which a brand is positioned in the minds of consumers relative to competitors.

Brand Proposition

A statement that defines the unique value or benefits that a brand offers to consumers. A brand proposition is often used as a marketing tool to differentiate the brand from its competitors and communicate its key benefits to consumers.

Brand Recognition

The extent to which consumers can correctly identify a brand based on visual or verbal cues. This can be measured using recognition tests, in which consumers are shown a logo or slogan and asked to identify the brand.

Brand Tracking Research

A method of market research that involves regularly collecting and analyzing data on consumer perceptions and attitudes towards a brand over time. Brand tracking research can help companies monitor the success of their marketing efforts and identify areas for improvement.

 โœ๏ธ Read our case study for brand awareness & performance research of an FMCG brand.

 

C

Capi (Computer-Aided Personal Interviewing)

Interviewer-administered surveying using a computer-based questionnaire.

Casi (Computer-Aided Self-Administered Interviewing)

Self-administered surveying using a computer-based questionnaire.

Cati (Computer-Aided Telephone Interviewing)

Interviewer-administered telephone surveys using a computer-based questionnaire.

Cawi (Computer-Aided Web Interviewing)

A rarely used term for a self-administered questionnaire that is presented to respondents via a webpage.

Category Usage

A measure of the frequency with which consumers use a particular category of products or services. Category usage data can be used to understand consumer behavior and identify potential growth opportunities for companies in a given market.

Central Limit Theorem

A statistics theorem states that, given a sufficiently large sample size, the distribution of sample means will be approximately normal.

Chi-Square Test

A statistical test is used to determine whether there is a significant difference between the observed and expected frequencies in a contingency table.

Cluster Analysis

A statistical technique is used to group consumers with similar characteristics or behaviors.

Cluster Sampling

A sampling method in which a larger population is divided into smaller, non-overlapping groups or "clusters," and a sample is then selected from each cluster. Cluster sampling can be used to improve the representativeness of a sample, particularly when it is difficult or impractical to obtain a random sample of the entire population.

Coding

The process of assigning numeric codes to the various answers to open-ended questions and other-specify questions or to other textual data.

Cognitive Bias

A systematic error in thinking affects the accuracy of judgments and decisions.

Cognitive Research

Research that is focused on understanding how people think and make decisions.

Cohort

A group of individuals having statistical similarities in a demographic study.

Completion Rate

The percentage of qualified respondents who completed the entire survey.

Conjoint Analysis

A statistical technique is used to determine how consumers value different product or service attributes.

Consumer Behavior

The study of how individuals make decisions about what to buy, how much to buy, and when to buy.

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Consumer Psychology

The study of how psychological factors influence consumer behavior.

Content Analysis

A research method that systematically analyzes written or spoken communication content.

Consideration Set

The group of brands or products that a consumer considers when making a purchase decision. The consideration set can be influenced by factors such as personal preferences, prior experience, and marketing messages.

Completion Rate

The rate at which surveys are completed as compared to the number of surveys started by respondents. To calculate the completion rate, divide the number of completes by the number of starts.

Consumer Expenditures

The total amount of money that consumers spend on goods and services. Consumer expenditure data can be used to measure overall economic activity and identify trends in consumer behavior.

Consumer Insights

Deep and actionable understanding of consumers' needs, wants, behaviors, and motivations. Consumer insights are often generated through market research and can be used to inform product development, marketing, and other aspects of a business.

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Consumer Panel

A group of consumers who have agreed to participate in market research studies on a regular basis. Consumer panels can provide a convenient and cost-effective way for companies to gather feedback and insights from a group of representative consumers.

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Control And Test

A method of market research in which a control group is compared to a test group to evaluate the effectiveness of a marketing campaign or other intervention. The control group receives no intervention, while the test group receives the marketing campaign or intervention. The results of the study can be used to measure the effectiveness of the campaign or intervention.

Control Group

In market research, a control group is a group of participants who receive no intervention or treatment in a study. The control group is used as a reference point to compare the results of a test group that receives the intervention or treatment being studied.

Copy Testing

A research method that is used to evaluate the effectiveness of advertising copy. This may involve presenting consumers with different versions of an ad and asking them to evaluate the copy, or using eye-tracking or other methods to measure attention and engagement.

Correlation Analysis

A statistical technique used to measure the strength and direction of the relationship between two or more variables. Correlation analysis can be used to identify patterns and trends in data, and to make predictions or inferences about the relationship between variables.

Correlation

A statistical measure of the relationship between two or more variables. A positive correlation indicates that as one variable increases, the other variable also increases; a negative correlation indicates that as one variable increases, the other variable decreases.

Cost Per Interview (CPI)

The total cost of a marketing research project divided by the total number of completed interviews.

Cost Per Recruit (CPR)

The average cost to recruit a participant for a depth interview, a focus group, or other types of research. Cost per recruit is also used to convey the average cost of recruiting members of online panels.

Cross-tabulation

A table that shows the relationship between two or more variables by calculating the frequencies of different combinations of values.

Customer Behavior

The actions and decisions customers take concerning a particular product or service. Customer behavior can be influenced by factors such as personal preferences, prior experience, and marketing messages.

Customer Experience

The overall impression that a consumer has of a brand or product based on their interactions with it.

Customer Experience (CX)

The overall impression or perception that customers have of a company or brand. Customer experience can be influenced by various factors, such as the quality of the product or service, the convenience of the purchasing process, and the level of customer service.

Customer Experience Mapping

A visual representation of the various touch points or interactions that customers have with a company or brand. Customer experience maps can help companies identify opportunities to improve the customer experience and optimize the customer journey.

Customer Journey

A customer journey represents the interactions and touchpoints a customer has with a brand or product over time. It includes all the stages of the customer's experience, from awareness to purchase and post-purchase evaluation. In consumer and market research, mapping the customer journey helps businesses understand the customer's needs, pain points, and decision-making process and identify opportunities for improvement.

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Customer Journey Mapping

A visual representation of the various touch points or interactions that customers have with a company or brand. Customer journey maps can help companies identify opportunities to improve the customer experience and optimize the customer journey.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

The practice of managing interactions with current and potential customers to improve customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Customer Satisfaction

The extent to which a product or service meets a customer's expectations.

CX Research

Research that focuses on understanding and improving the customer experience. CX research can involve a variety of methods and techniques, such as surveys, focus groups, and customer feedback analysis.

D

Data Analysis

The process of examining, transforming, and modeling data in order to identify patterns, trends, and relationships. Data analysis can be used to gain insights, make predictions, and support decision-making.

Data Cleaning

The process of identifying and correcting errors or inconsistencies in research data. Data cleaning is an essential step in the research process, as it helps ensure the accuracy and reliability of the data.

Data Collection

The process of gathering or obtaining data for a research study. Data collection can involve various of methods, such as surveys, experiments, interviews, and observation.

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Data Mining

The process of using software algorithms to discover patterns and trends in large data sets.

Day-After Recall

A measure of how well consumers can remember the details of an advertising campaign or other marketing message the day after it is presented to them. Day-after recall is often used to evaluate the effectiveness of advertising campaigns.

Demographic Segmentation

The process of dividing a customer base into smaller groups based on demographic characteristics such as age, gender, income, and education. Demographic segmentation can help companies understand the characteristics and behaviors of different customer groups and tailor their marketing and other activities accordingly.

Density / Population Density

In market research, density refers to the number of people or households in a given area. Population density is often used as a measure of market potential, as it can help companies identify areas with a high concentration of potential customers.

Desk Research

Desk research is conducted using existing data and sources rather than collecting new data through surveys or other methods. Desk research can be a useful and cost-effective way to gather information, but it can also be limited by the quality and availability of the existing data. 

Decision Tree Analysis

A graphical representation of the decision-making process, showing the possible outcomes of different courses of action.

Demand Forecasting

The process of predicting future consumer demand for a product or service.

Diary Study

A research method in which participants are asked to keep a record of their experiences and observations over a period of time.

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Digital Research Company

A company that specializes in conducting market research using digital methods and technologies. Digital research companies can offer a range of services, such as online surveys, online focus groups, and data analytics.

Discriminant Analysis

A statistical technique that is used to identify the factors that distinguish different groups or classes.

Drop-Off/Out

A drop-off or dropout refers to a participant who leaves a study or survey before it is completed. Drop-offs or dropouts can impact the representativeness and reliability of research results.

Dropout Rate

The percentage of participants who leave a study or survey before it is completed. The dropout rate can be used as a measure of the quality or reliability of research results.

E

Econometrics

Econometrics is a branch of economics that uses statistical methods to analyze and predict economic trends and relationships between variables. In consumer and market research, econometrics models and forecasts consumer behavior and market conditions, helping businesses make more informed decisions.

Ethnography

Ethnography is a qualitative research method that involves observing and studying people in their natural environments to understand their behaviors, beliefs, and cultural practices. In consumer and market research, ethnography is used to gain a deeper understanding of consumer behaviors, attitudes, and motivations, helping businesses make more informed decisions about product design, marketing, and overall strategy.

Exit Interview

Exit interviews are structured interviews that are conducted with consumers who are leaving a store. The purpose of exit interviews is to gather feedback and insights from consumers about their experiences at a store, including any challenges or issues they faced, what they enjoyed about, and any suggestions they have for improving the brand.

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 โœ๏ธ View our case study for location based research of an FMCG brand.

 

Experimental Research

Research that involves manipulating one or more variables and measuring the effect on a dependent variable.

Exploratory Research
Research that is focused on discovering new insights and generating ideas.

Experience Surveys

Experience surveys are surveys that are used to gather feedback and insights from customers or employees about their experiences with a product, service, or company. These surveys can be used to identify areas of strength and weakness, as well as to understand customer or employee needs and preferences.

Eye Tracking

A research technique that uses specialized equipment to measure where a person is looking.

F

Face-To-Face Interview

A face-to-face interview is a type of research method in which an interviewer meets with a respondent in person to ask them questions about a particular topic. This type of interview can be conducted in a variety of settings, including in a laboratory, in a respondent's home, or in a public location.

Factor Analysis

Factor analysis is a statistical method that is used to identify underlying patterns or relationships among a set of variables. It is often used in research to identify the underlying factors that contribute to a particular outcome or to reduce a large number of variables to a smaller number of more interpretable factors.

Factor

In research, a factor is a variable that is being measured or controlled in an experiment or study. Factors can be independent variables (those that are manipulated by the researcher) or dependent variables (those that are measured in response to changes in the independent variables).

Feasibility Study

A feasibility study is a type of research that is conducted to assess the feasibility of a particular project or idea. This may involve analyzing the resources required, identifying potential challenges or risks, and determining the potential benefits of the project.

Field Work

Field work refers to the process of collecting data from respondents in a research study. This may involve recruiting participants, administering surveys or interviews, and collecting and analyzing data.

Focus Group

A small, diverse group of individuals who are brought together to discuss a particular topic or product in a facilitated setting.

Frequency

Frequency refers to the number of times a particular event or occurrence takes place. In research, frequency may be used to describe the number of times a particular response is given in a survey or the number of times a particular behavior is observed.

G

Generations X, Y, Z, Alpha, Boomers

These terms refer to different generational groups that are often used in market research and marketing. Generational groups are typically defined based on birth year ranges and common characteristics or experiences. For example, "Boomers" refers to people born between 1946 and 1964. "Generation X" typically refers to people born between 1965 and 1980, while "Generation Y" (also known as "Millennials") refers to people born between 1981 and 1996. "Generation Z" refers to people born between 1997 and 2012, and "Generation Alpha" refers to those born between 2013 and 2025. 

Group Interview

A group interview is a type of research method in which an interviewer conducts a group discussion with a group of respondents. Group interviews are often used to gather insights and opinions from a diverse group of people, and may involve structured or unstructured questions.

H

Halo Effect

This refers to the phenomenon where a person's overall impression of someone or something influences their evaluation of that person or thing on specific attributes. For example, if a person thinks highly of a particular brand, they may perceive the brand's products as being of higher quality, even if there is no objective evidence to support this belief.

Heuristic

Heuristics are mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that people use to make judgments and decisions quickly and efficiently. In consumer and market research, heuristics are used to understand how consumers make decisions and perceive products, services, and brands. This understanding can be used to design more effective marketing and advertising campaigns and develop products and services that better meet the needs of consumers.

I

Ideation

This refers to the process of generating ideas or concepts. In the context of consumer research, ideation might involve brainstorming sessions or other techniques to come up with new product ideas or marketing campaigns.

Incomplete

In the context of consumer research, an incomplete response refers to a survey or other research instrument that has not been fully completed by the respondent.

Incompletion Rate

This refers to the percentage of research instruments that are not fully completed by respondents. A high incompletion rate can indicate that the survey is too long, confusing, or otherwise not engaging for the respondents.

In-Depth Interview

A research method in which a trained interviewer conducts a detailed, one-on-one conversation with a respondent. An in-depth, semi-structured interview in which the interviewer asks open-ended questions and probes for more detailed responses. In-Depth interviews are often used in qualitative research to gather rich, detailed insights from participants.

Incentive

Something that motivates or encourages a person to take a particular action, like participating in a research survey.

Independent Variable

The variable that is manipulated or controlled in an experiment.

Inferential Statistics

The branch of statistics that is used to make predictions or inferences about a population based on a sample.

Intercept Survey

A research method in which participants are approached and asked to complete a survey on the spot.

Interview

An interview is a conversation between two or more people, typically conducted for the purpose of gathering information or data. In the context of consumer research, interviews might be conducted in person, over the phone, or online.

Interviewer Bias

This refers to the influence that the interviewer's personal beliefs, attitudes, or expectations can have on the responses of the interviewee. Interviewer bias can occur when the interviewer unconsciously communicates their opinions to the respondent or asks leading questions.

K

K-Means Cluster Analysis
This is a statistical technique used to group similar data points together into clusters. In the context of consumer research, k-means cluster analysis might be used to segment a population into groups based on common characteristics or behaviors.

L

Lifestyle Research

This refers to research that aims to understand how people live their lives and the factors that influence their behavior and decision-making. Lifestyle research can be used to inform product development, marketing, and other business strategies.

Lifestyle Segmentation

This refers to the process of dividing a population into groups based on common lifestyles or patterns of behavior. Lifestyle segmentation can be used to target marketing and product development efforts to specific groups of consumers.

Likert Scale

Likert Scale is a rating scale used in surveys and questionnaires to measure attitudes, opinions, or beliefs. It typically includes a set of statements or questions that respondents are asked to rate on a numerical scale, such as 1-5, with 1 indicating strong disagreement and 5 indicating strong agreement. In consumer and market research, Likert scales are commonly used to measure consumer attitudes and perceptions toward products, services, and brands.

Linear Regression Analysis

This is a statistical technique used to model the relationship between two variables. In the context of consumer research, linear regression analysis might be used to understand how changes in one variable (e.g., price) affect another variable (e.g., demand).

Logistic Regression

Logistic Regression is a statistical method used to model and predict the likelihood of a binary outcome, such as the possibility of an event occurring or not. It is used to estimate the probability of a particular event based on one or multiple independent variables. In consumer and market research, logistic regression models and predicts consumer behavior, such as purchasing decisions, brand loyalty, or likelihood of repurchasing.

M

Market Analysis

The process of gathering and analyzing data about a market to better understand its size, growth, and characteristics.

Marketing Concept

This refers to the idea that the success of a business depends on understanding and meeting the needs of its customers. The marketing concept emphasizes the importance of identifying and targeting specific customer segments and developing marketing strategies that meet their needs.

Marketing Mix Modeling

This refers to the use of statistical techniques to understand the impact of marketing variables (e.g., advertising spend, pricing) on business outcomes (e.g., sales, market share). Marketing mix modeling can be used to optimize marketing spending and make informed decisions about which marketing tactics are most effective.

Market Research

The process of gathering and analyzing data about consumers, markets, and competitors to feed business decisions.

Market Segmentation

The process of dividing a larger market into smaller groups of consumers with similar characteristics or needs.

Market Share

The percentage of a particular market that is controlled by a particular brand or company.

Marketing Mix

The combination of tactics and strategies that a company uses to promote its products or services.

Marketing Optimization

This refers to the process of maximizing the effectiveness of marketing efforts by using data and analytics to make informed decisions. Marketing optimization might involve techniques such as marketing mix modeling, A/B testing, or customer segmentation.

MaxDiff

This is a statistical technique used to identify the most important or preferred items in a list. In the context of consumer research, MaxDiff might be used to understand which product features or attributes are most important to consumers.

Mean Square Error

Mean square error (MSE) is a measure of the difference between the predicted values of a model and the actual values. MSE is calculated by taking the sum of the squared differences between the predicted and actual values, and dividing by the number of values. A lower MSE indicates that the model is more accurate.

Mean

The mean is a measure of central tendency that represents the average value in a dataset. 

Media Mix

The combination of different media channels that a company uses to reach its target audience. This may include television, radio, print, digital, and outdoor advertising, as well as public relations and other forms of communication.

Message Testing

A research method that is used to evaluate the effectiveness of advertising messages. 

โœ๏ธ View our case study for ad message testing study of a global FMCG brand.

 

Methodology

The approach or framework that is used to conduct a research study.

Multiple Regression Analysis

This is a statistical technique used to understand the relationship between multiple independent variables and a single dependent variable. In the context of consumer research, multiple regression analysis might be used to understand how multiple factors (e.g. advertising spending and product features) influence a business outcome (e.g., sales).

Multidimensional Scaling

A statistical technique that is used to represent the relationships between objects in a multidimensional space.

Multivariate Analysis

A statistical technique that is used to analyze the relationship between multiple variables.

Mystery Shopping

A research method in which research participants pose as customers to evaluate a company's products, services, stores, or customer support.

 ๐ŸŒŽ Explore our cutting-edge geo-triggering technology used in our research solutions.

 โœ๏ธ View our case study for location based research of an FMCG brand.

 

N

Name Testing

This refers to the process of evaluating potential names for a product or brand. Name testing might involve surveying consumers to understand how they perceive different names and which ones they find most appealing.

โœ๏ธ View our case study for brand name testing study of an FMCG brand.

 

Net Promoter Score (NPS)

Customer loyalty and satisfaction measure is calculated by asking customers how likely they are to recommend a company to others. This can be used to understand the effectiveness of an advertising campaign or to compare the performance of different brands.

New Product Development Research

This refers to the research that is conducted to inform the development of new products. New product development research might involve understanding customer needs and preferences, evaluating potential product concepts, and testing prototypes.

New Product Prototype Testing

A new product prototype is a preliminary version of a product that is used to test and refine the design before mass production. New product prototypes can be physical products or digital prototypes, and they may be tested with focus groups or other research methods.

O

Omnibus Panel

An omnibus panel is a group of people who have agreed to participate in multiple omnibus surveys over a period of time. Omnibus panels can be used to gather data on a variety of topics and may be recruited through various methods, such as online panels or telephone sampling.

On-Air Testing

On-air testing refers to the process of evaluating the appeal of a television show, commercial, or other content before it airs. On-air testing might involve surveying a sample of viewers to understand their reactions to the content.

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Online Focus Groups

Online focus groups are groups of people participating in a moderated discussion about a particular topic via the internet. Online focus groups are conducted through video conferencing software or other online platforms and is used to gather data on consumer attitudes, behaviors, and preferences.

Online Panel

An online panel is a group of people who have agreed to participate in online market research studies. Online panels may be recruited through various methods, such as email lists, social media, or online surveys, and they may be used to gather data on consumer attitudes, behaviors, and preferences.

Online Research

Online research is a method of gathering data and information through the internet. It can include a variety of techniques, such as online surveys, mobile surveys, social media monitoring, web scraping, and online focus groups. It allows for a large and diverse sample to be reached and provides a cost-effective and efficient way of gathering data.

Open-Ended Questions

Open-ended questions are questions that allow respondents to provide a free-form answer, rather than selecting from a predetermined list of options. Open-ended questions may be used to gather more detailed or qualitative information from respondents.

Opt-In/Double Opt-In

Opt-in refers to the process of obtaining permission from an individual to receive emails, other forms of communication, or particular research study participants. Double opt-in involves requiring the individual to confirm their consent by responding to a confirmation email or taking some other action. Double opt-in is often used to ensure that only individuals who have explicitly expressed an interest in participating.

Opinion Poll

A research method in which a sample of individuals are asked to express their opinions on a particular topic.

Over Quota (OQ)

Over quota (OQ) refers to a situation in which a research study has reached the target number of respondents for a particular segment or subgroup. For example, if a study is seeking to interview a certain number of male respondents between the ages of 18 and 24, and that target has been reached, any additional male respondents in that age group would be considered OQ.

P

Package Design Testing

Package design testing refers to the process of evaluating the appeal and effectiveness of product packaging. Package design testing might involve surveying consumers to understand their reactions to different packaging designs or testing the packaging in a simulated retail environment.

 โœ๏ธ Read our case study for package design testing of an FMCG brand.

Paired Depth Interview

A paired-depth interview is a one-on-one interview conducted with two people simultaneously. Paired-depth interviews may be used to gather data on topics such as relationship dynamics or shared decision-making processes.

Panel Study

A research study in which the same group of participants is surveyed multiple times over a period of time.

Passive Data

Passive data is collected without active participation from the researcher or participant. It is typically collected through tracking website behaviors, monitoring social media, geo-location, or collecting any kind of data from devices like mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and wearables.

๐ŸŒŽ Explore our digital tracker research solution, which uses passive data to analyze consumers' online behavior and decode their consumer journey.

Path Analysis

A statistical technique that is used to identify the direct and indirect effects of one variable on another.

Perception Test

A research method that is used to evaluate the impact of an advertisement on consumer perceptions. This may involve presenting consumers with an ad and asking them to rate it on various dimensions, such as clarity, likability, or relevance.

Pop-Up Survey

A pop-up survey is a survey that appears on the Bounty app, on a website, or on other online platforms when a user is visiting or triggering the study with an action such as visiting a store (geo-triggered pop-up survey). Pop-up surveys may be used to gather data on user behavior or opinions at the right time and in the right place.

Pre/Post

Pre/post research involves collecting data from the same group of people before and after an event or intervention. Pre/post research can be used to understand the impact of the event or intervention on the group.

Pre-Test

A research method that is used to evaluate the potential effectiveness of an advertising campaign before it is launched. This may involve testing different ad concepts, messages, or formats with a sample of consumers to identify the most promising options.

Predictive Modeling

The process of building a mathematical model that can be used to make predictions about future events or trends.

Price Elasticity of Demand

A measure of how sensitive consumers are to changes in price.

Principal Component Regression

A type of regression analysis that is used to identify the underlying dimensions or factors that are most important in explaining a dependent variable.

Principle Component Analysis

A statistical technique that is used to identify the underlying dimensions or factors in a set of data.

Pricing Research

Pricing research refers to the process of gathering data to inform pricing decisions. Pricing research might involve surveying consumers to understand their willingness to pay for a product or analyzing market data to understand the competitive landscape.

Product Concept Testing

Product concept testing refers to the process of evaluating the appeal of a new product idea to potential customers. Product concept testing might involve surveying consumers to understand their interest in the product and what features or benefits they would find most appealing.

Product Optimization

Product optimization refers to the process of improving the performance or effectiveness of a product. Product optimization might involve making changes to the product design or features based on customer feedback or market data.

Product Placement

The practice of incorporating a product or brand into a television show, movie, or other form of media.

Product Placement Study

A product placement study is a research project that evaluates the effectiveness of placing a product in a particular location or context. Product placement studies might involve analyzing sales data or surveying consumers to understand their awareness and attitudes toward the product.

Product Positioning Research

Product positioning research refers to the process of understanding how a product is perceived in the market and identifying the most effective positioning for the product. Product positioning research might involve surveying consumers to understand their perceptions of the product and its competitors or analyzing market data to understand trends and opportunities.

Product Prototype Tests

Product prototype tests involve evaluating the appeal and performance of a preliminary version of a product before it is mass-produced. Product prototype tests may be conducted with focus groups or other research methods and may involve gathering feedback on the product design and features.

Product Test

A product test is a research project that involves evaluating the performance or appeal of a product. Product tests may be conducted with focus groups or other research methods and may involve gathering feedback on the product's features, usability, or other characteristics.

Projective Techniques

Projective techniques are research methods that involve presenting respondents with ambiguous stimuli and asking them to interpret or respond to them in some way. Projective techniques may be used to gather data on topics such as attitudes, motivations, or unconscious desires.

Public Opinion

The collective attitudes or beliefs of a group of individuals about a particular topic or issue.

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Purchase Intent

Purchase intent refers to the likelihood that a person will make a purchase. Purchase intent may be influenced by factors such as price, product features, and marketing messages. In consumer research, purchase intent might be measured through surveys or other research methods.

Q

Quality Assurance (QA)

Quality assurance (QA) refers to the process of ensuring that a product or service meets certain quality standards. In the context of consumer research, quality assurance might involve establishing protocols for data collection, analysis, and reporting to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the research.

Quantitative Research

Research that is focused on collecting and analyzing numerical data. This may involve using methods such as surveys or experiments to gather data that can be quantified and statistically analyzed.

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Qualitative Research

Research that is focused on understanding people's experiences, opinions, and behaviors in a more in-depth, open-ended manner. This may involve using methods such as focus groups, interviews, or observation to collect rich, detailed data.

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Qualitative Data Analysis

The process of organizing and interpreting the rich, detailed data that is collected through qualitative research methods.

Quantitative Data Analysis

The process of organizing and analyzing the numerical data that is collected through quantitative research methods.

Quota

Quotas are limits you can set for the number of responses your survey collects from a particular group.

R

Random Sampling

A method of selecting a representative sample from a larger population in which each individual has an equal chance of being selected.

Re-Contact

Re-Contact refers to the process of contacting a respondent again for follow-up research or to gather additional information. Re-Contact may be used to gather more detailed or updated data from respondents or to verify or clarify previous responses.

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Regression Analysis

A statistical technique that is used to identify the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.

Representative Sample

A sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the larger population.

Respondent

An individual who participates in a research study by answering questions or providing feedback.

Respondent Fatigue

Respondent fatigue refers to the phenomenon of respondents becoming less willing or able to complete a survey or other research instrument as the length or complexity of the instrument increases. Respondent fatigue can lead to lower response rates and may affect the accuracy of the data.

S

Sampling Bias

Sampling bias is a type of bias that occurs when a sample of individuals or data is not chosen randomly, leading to non-representative results. It appears when certain groups or individuals are more or less likely to be included in the sample, resulting in a biased representation of the population. This can lead to inaccurate conclusions or generalizations about the results.

Sample Size

The number of individuals who participate in a research study.

Sampling Error

The difference between the results of a sample and the true values of the population.

Screener

A screener is a set of questions used to determine whether a respondent is eligible to participate in a particular research study. Screeners may be used to select a sample that is representative of the target population or to exclude individuals who do not meet certain criteria.

Segmentation

The process of dividing a larger market into smaller groups of consumers with similar characteristics or needs.

Sensory Research

Research that focuses on the senses, such as sight, sound, taste, touch, and smell.

Sentiment Analysis

The process of using natural language processing and machine learning algorithms to identify and analyze people's emotions and opinions. This can be used to evaluate the tone or sentiment of advertising messages, and to understand how consumers are reacting to a brand or campaign.

Statistical Significance

The likelihood that a research finding is not due to chance.

Store Audit

A store audit is a research project that involves evaluating the appearance and operation of a retail store. Store audits might involve analyzing sales data, observing store traffic and customer interactions, or gathering feedback from employees and customers.

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Survey

A research method in which individuals are asked to answer a set of questions.

T

Telephone Depth Interviews

Telephone-depth interviews are one-on-one interviews conducted over the phone. Telephone-depth interviews may be used to gather more in-depth or qualitative data from respondents and may involve follow-up questions or probes to explore topics in greater detail.

Telephone Focus Groups

Telephone focus groups are groups of people who participate in a moderated discussion about a particular topic over the phone.

Test Market

A small, controlled market where a new product or marketing campaign is tested before being launched on a larger scale.

Trend Analysis

The process of identifying and analyzing patterns or trends in data over time.

Total Awareness

Total awareness refers to the percentage of consumers in a target market who are aware of a particular product, brand, or service. It is a measure of how well-known and recognizable a product is in the market.

Tracking Study (Tracker)

A tracking study, also known as a tracker, is a type of consumer research that involves collecting data over a period of time in order to track changes in consumer attitudes, behaviors, and preferences. Trackers are typically conducted on a regular basis, such as monthly or quarterly, and can be used to monitor the effectiveness of marketing campaigns, identify trends, and make informed business decisions.

Turf Analysis

TURF analysis, "Total Unduplicated Reach and Frequency," is a research technique used to identify the optimal combination of products, brands, or services to include in a marketing campaign. It involves specifying the maximum number of consumers reached with a given set of products while minimizing overlap or duplication. TURF analysis can help marketers maximize their reach and minimize costs.

U

Unaided Awareness

Unaided awareness refers to a consumer's ability to spontaneously recall a product, brand, or service without prompting or assistance. It measures how well a product is ingrained in a consumer's memory and can be used to gauge the effectiveness of marketing efforts.

U&A ( Usage & Attitudes)

Usage and Attitude research studies are market research that aims to understand how consumers use a product or service and their attitudes toward it. These studies typically involve surveys, interviews, or focus groups to gather data on usage patterns, satisfaction, and brand loyalty. The findings of these studies can be used to inform product development, marketing strategies, and overall business decisions.

โœ๏ธ View our case study for a beverage company's usage and attitudes research study.

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V

Variance

A measure of how far a set of numbers is spread out from the average.

Verbatim

A verbatim is a quote or transcript of something said or written, typically an interview or focus group discussion. Verbatims are often used in consumer research to provide a detailed and accurate record of what was said and to allow researchers to analyze the language and tone used by participants.

Video Focus Groups

A video focus group is a type of focus group that is conducted remotely using video conferencing software. Participants can join the focus group from anywhere and share their thoughts and opinions on a product, brand, or service through the video platform. Video focus groups are often used in consumer research because they are more convenient and cost-effective than in-person focus groups, allowing researchers to reach a broader and more diverse group of participants.